Authors guidline


Publications are referred to in the text in one of the forms shown below.

1. If the author's name occurs in the sentence the page number is given in parentheses:

In a popular study Brown (556) argued that ...

2. If, however, the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and page number are given in parentheses:

More recent studies (Jonson 96; Stuart 214) show that ...

3. If you are using more than one book by the same author, give the surname, the title in italics and the page. Original title should be shortened.
… these cultural objects become the “practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak” (Foucault, The Archeology 49).

Similarly, if you are using more than one essay or article by the same author, give the surname, “the title of article” indicated by quotation marks and the page numbers.

4. If there are two or three authors, all author surnames should be given:

It is important to realize that “con-texts are themselves texts and […] they do not simply make up a background” (Barker and Hulme 236).

……… (Rabking, Greenberg, and Olander vii)

5. If there are more than three authors the surname of the first author only should be given, followed by et al.:

… (Williams et al. 19).

6. If there is no author, the title and the page number should be given:

Following the recent trends in cultural studies, the critic claims that… (The Times 5).

7. If you refer to a source quoted in another work, provide information on secondary source:

A study by Heilbrun (qtd. in Jones 24) showed that...

(You need to list the work you have used, i.e. Jones, in the works cited).

8. A short quotation of less than a line may be included in the body of the text in quotation marks but if it is longer start a new line, indent both margins of the quotation (single space) and use a smaller font. Include the page number.

9. Diagrams should be referenced as though they were a quotation with the author and date given alongside and full details in the list of works cited.

10. Web documents should be cited using the author (if there is one) and/or title in parenthesis:

He finds it significant to point up that “[t]here is not a single role in any one of my plays that must be played by a physically intact white person” (Mee).

Jerome McGann notes that “we no longer have to use books to analyze and study other books or texts” (“Rationale of Hypertext”).

If the source includes fixed page numbers (not page numbers of a printout) or section numbering (e.g. paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers. Give the appropriate abbreviation before the numbers (Moulthrop, pars. 19-20).

11. In case of personal communications and other non-recoverable data, give name and surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible.

According to Mary Kreis, the socio-cultural conditions of the publication are of particular importance (personal communication, 22 March 2001).

12. If you cite from a work in a multiple volume, identify the volume and the page number:

In the editorial commentary it is noted that the editors decided to print “the revised text in so far as it can be ascertained” (Wells 3: 1233).

13. If you cite from a newspaper or a magazine article, give the author if available, otherwise use the title of the newspaper/ magazine and page number:

One of the critics claimed that Aldridge did not act in the English style (Breslauer Zeitung 18).

14. When citing from plays, use Arabic numerals separating them with a colon (act: scene: line numbers):

…perhaps the most quoted line comes from Caesar: “Et, tu, Brute!” (3.1.23).

15. For short poetry quotations, separate lines with / marks and list line numbers:

“Fair Quiet, have I found thee here, / And Innocence, thy sister dear!” (“The Garden” 9-10).

For quotations longer than three lines, preserve the form and spacing of the original.

16. In case of encyclopedia use author’s name (if given) or the editor’s name and the page number. If neither author’s nor editor’s name is given, use the title.

The Emperor Tamarin, native to the Amazon Basin, was allegedly named for its similarity to William II, the last German Emperor (Davis 89).


The references are listed in alphabetical order of authors’ names. Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of published work you may have cited.

Reference to a book / single author:

Elements to cite: Author’s Surname, Name. Title. Name of editor (if any). Name of translator, writer providing an introduction or preface, name of series. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Number of volumes (if more than one).

Wilson, Frank R. The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture. New York: Pantheon, 1998.

Dostoevsky, Feodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. George Gibian. New York: Norton, 1964. 2.

Reference to a book / more than one author:

Kawachi, Yoshiko and Richard Metheson. Narrative Fiction. 2nd ed. London: Longman, 1993.

Marquart, James W., Sheldon Ekland Olson and Jonathan R. Sorenson. The Rope, the Chair, and the Needle: Capital Punishment in Texas, 1923-1990. Austin: U of Texas P, 1994.

Moseley, David, et al. Ways forward with ICT. Newcastle: U of Newcastle P, 1999.

Reference to an anonymous book:

Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993.

Reference to two or more books by the same author:

Use three hyphens followed by period and then title (or comma and ed., trans. if necessary)

Genette, Gérard. Seuils. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1987.
---. “Introduction to the Paratext.” Trans. Marie Maclean. New Literary History 22 (1991): 261-272.

Reference to a book / publication by a corporate body:

Elements to cite: Name of issuing body. Title of publication. Ed. and editor’s name (if relevant). Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Report Number (if relevant).

UNESCO. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris: Unesco, 1993. PGI-93/WS/22.

Reference to a book with an editor:

Lilburn, Tim, ed. Poetry and Knowing: Speculative Essays and Interviews. Kingston, Ontario: Quarry Press, 1995.
Reference to a multivolume work:

Plato. Dialogues of Plato. Ed. and trans. Benjamin Jowett. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1871.

Plato. Complete Works. Ed. John M. Cooper, and D. S. Hutchinson. Vol. 1. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997.

Reference to a book in a series:

Zamora, Margarita. Reading Columbus. Latin American Literature and Culture 9. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.

Reference to a republished book:

Atwood, Margaret. Surfacing. 1972. New York: Doubleday, 1998.

Reference to a contribution in a book / an anthology or compilation:

Elements to cite: Contributing author’s Surname, Name. Title of contribution in parenthesis. (Date when article first appeared, if relevant). Title of book. Ed. or Eds. if relevant. Initials. Surname, of author or editor of publication. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Page number(s) of contribution.

Foucault, Michel. “What is an Author?” Language, Counter-Memory, Practice. Trans. Donald F. Bouchard and Sherry Simon. Ed. Donald F. Bouchard. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1977. 124-127.

Kavanagh, James H. “Shakespeare in Ideology.” Alternative Shakespeares. Ed. John Drakakis. London, New York: Routledge, 1996. 144-165.

Reference to an article in a reference book:

“Culture”. Compact Oxford English Dictionary. 3rd ed. 1989.

Reference to an Introduction, Preface, Foreword or Afterword:

Drakakis, John. Introduction. Alternative Shakespeares. Ed. John Drakakis. London, New York: Routledge, 1996. 1-25.

Greetham, David C. Foreword. A Critique of Modern Textual Criticism. By Jerome McGann. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 1992. ix-xix.

Reference to an article in a journal with continuous pagination:

Elements to cite: Author's Surname, Name. Title of article in inverted commas. Title of journal Volume number and (year): page numbers of contribution.

Busa, Roberto. “The Annals of Humanities Computing: The Index Thomisticus.” Computers and the Humanities 14 (1980): 83-90.

Reference to an article in a journal that pages each issue separately:

Evans, Robert. “Structuralism and Semiotics.” Modern Literary Theory 23.2 (1997): 47-68.

Reference to an article from a monthly periodical:

Dezeuze, Anna. “Wall of Silence.” Art Monthly June 2007: 1-6.

Reference to an article from a magazine / weekly periodical:

Single, Peter. “English Theatre of the Past.” New Republic 12 June 1999: 27–36.

Heilpern, John. “Full of Sound and Fury, Signifying Nothing.” The New York Observer 17 Jan. 2000: 19.

Reference to an article in a newspaper:

Brantley, Ben. “The Prince In Us All.” The New York Times 1 June 2001: E1+.
“Waiting for the Fall”. The New Yorker 27 June 1988: n.p.

Reference to a conference paper:

Elements to cite: Contributing author's Surname, Name. “Title of contribution.” Title of conference proceedings, including date and place of conference. Ed. or Eds. (if applicable). Name and Surname of editor of conference proceedings. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Page numbers of contribution.

Silver, Karen. “Responses to Texts.” 9th International Online Information Meeting, 3-5 December 1990, London. Ed. David Raitt. Oxford: Learned Information, 1991. 323-330.

Halio, Jay L. “New Trends in Shakespeare Editing: King Lear”. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference New Trends in English and American Studies, 2-7 April 1990, Cracow. Eds. Marta Gibińska and Zygmunt Mazur. Kraków: Universitas, 1992. 35-44.

Reference to an unpublished dissertation:

Elements to cite: Author's Surname, Name. “Title of thesis.” Diss. Name of institution to which submitted, Year.

Aguter, Alan. “The Idea of Story and Discourse.” Diss. Texas University at Austin, 1993.

Reference to a film, video:

Elements to cite: Title. Subsidiary originator (optional but director is preferred). Name and Surname. Material designation. Place of production: organisation. Year.

Macbeth. Dir. Orson Welles. Film. Republic Pictures, 1948.

Birds in the Garden. Video. London: Harper Videos, 1998.

Reference to TV programs, series:

Elements to cite: The “Title” of television episode or radio segment. Program’s title and/or Series title. Credit (By, Perf., Dir., Host, etc). Network / transmitting organization and channel. The local station/ Call Letters (if any), City of Local Station (if any). Day Month Year.

“Dangerous Animals.” Close to Nature. Prod. Nancy White. PBS. WNET, New York. 12 Aug. 1999.

“Yes, Prime Minister.” The Ministerial Broadcast. BBC2. 16 Jan. 1986.

Blair, Tony. Interview. Six O’clock News. BBC1. 29 Feb. 1997.

Electronic publications

Reference to individual work / document from Internet Site:

Elements to cite: Author (if known). “Title of Page or Document.” Title of the Site or Larger Work. (if applicable). Date of electronic publication, last update, or date of posting. Name of any Associated Institution. Date of download. < http://address/filename>.

“Tiger’s winning streak ends at Doral”. ESPNET SportsZone. 24 March 2008. <>.

Tapper, Jake. “Fighting for the White Male Voter.” 24 March 2008. ABC News. 28 March 2008. <>.

Entire Internet Site / General Web site:

Elements to cite: Title of the Site. Ed. Name and Surname. Date of electronic publication, last update. Name of any Associated Institution. Date of download. < http://address/filename>.

Internet Shakespeare Editions. Ed. Michael Best. 2005. University of Victoria. 22 June 2004 < >.

Online Books:

Elements to cite: Surname, Name of the author. “Title.” Title of the Site or Larger Work. Date. Name of any Associated Institution. Editor’s Name and Surname. Date of download. < http://address/filename>.

Wordsworth, William. “We Are Seven.” The Complete Poetical Works. 1888. Great Books Online. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. 2002. 15 Oct. 2005 <>.

Reference to E-Journals (without subscription):

Elements to cite: Author of article. “Title.” Journal Title date/volume of electronic publication. Date of access. <http://address/filename>.

Smith, Thomas. “Who Invented the Net?” Web Magazine 14 Feb. 2002. 25 May 2006. <>.

Korb, Karen. “Persons and things: book review of Kermode on Psychoanalysis and Cultural Studies.” MLA 6 (15). 17 June 1999. <gopher://>.

Reference to mailbase/ listserv e-mail lists:

Elements to cite: Author (if given). "Subject of Message." Date of posting. Online posting. Name of Discussion List. Access date. <URL or email address of the list.>.

Brack, E.V. "Computing drama". 2 May 1995. Online posting. Shakespearlist. 17 Apr. 1996. <>.

Reference to personal electronic communications (e-mail):

Elements to cite: Sender’s Surname, Name. “Subject of Message.” [Day Month Year when received]. E-mail to the author [OR] Personal e-mail. Day Month Year.

Smith, Susan. “Experiments.” 12 Jan. 2002. Personal e-mail. 24 May 2002.
Boyle, Anthony T. “Re: Utopia.” E-mail to Smith, Richard. 21 June 2003.

Reference to publications on CD-ROM:

Elements to cite: Author/editor. Title. Author (if applicable). [type of medium] CD-ROM. Place of publication: Publisher (if ascertainable), year.

Braunmuller, A. R., ed. Macbeth. By William Shakespeare. CD-ROM. New York: Voyager, 1994.


Permission to reproduce from copyright text is required if the extract quoted in the essay exceeds 400 words, or if a collection of extracts exceeds 800 words. This is only a rough estimation and permission should be sought from the publisher of any copyright material if in doubt. It is the author’s responsibility to seek written permission for any work in copyright and also to settle any fees which may arise as a result of this. Copies of all relevant permissions documents should be supplied to the publisher along with the completed manuscript.

Copyright material published in Britain lasts for the author’s lifetime plus 70 years. Permission is also required if any tables, diagrams or photographs are used from copyright sources. Acknowledgment of source, author and publisher (if applicable) must be made.

Illustrations and photographs are welcome, but please remember to include copy right waivers for any images.


Running text

The first line of each new paragraph should be indented, except where it follows a heading.

There should be no space between paragraphs unless you want a text break. If so, please add a note in the margin to this effect and circle it.

Leave additional spacing above and below section headings and above and below indented quotes.

Any words or phrases which you want to be italicized in the final text should be italicized.


Please type all headings — chapter titles, main and sub-headings — with capital letters. Proper nouns should also be capitalized. It is not necessary to conclude headings with a full stop.


Any quoted material should faithfully follow the original, in both spelling and punctuation, even it conflicts with the style in the rest of the publication.

For extracts exceeding 50 words in length, material should be indented from the left and right margin, with space above and below, and quotation marks should be omitted.

Any notes or editorial comment within the extracts should appear in square brackets and any omissions should be indicated by an ellipsis in square brackets (followed by a full stop if it occurs and the end of a sentence).


Notes may contain information which comments on, expands or explains the text, yet they should be kept to a minimum.

They should be grouped together at the bottom of each page.

To indicate a note, please insert a superscript note number in the text at the appropriate point starting from 1. Note numbers should follow any punctuation, except in cases where the note applies to text appearing in parentheses (round brackets); then the superscript number should be located within the closing bracket.


Abbreviations and contractions: abbreviations consist of capital letters and are usually expressed without full stops (GNP, USA). Contractions ending with the same letter as the original word do not take terminal full stops (Mr, Dr, St), but abbreviations where the last letter of the word is not included do take a full stop (ed., ch.) Thus ed. and eds are both correct. In the Works Cited, the abbreviations of months should be as follows: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

Accents should be retained in foreign words, except in French upper case.

Biblical references should be in roman, not italic, type, in the following form: Genesis 8:7.

Bold Type should be restricted to headings and table headings. Please do not use for highlighting words within the text. Please use italics for this purpose (although this style should be used sparingly).

Capitals are used to distinguish the specific from the general. Please, avoid the over-use of capitalisation as it reduces the importance of those words which do require a capital, and spoils the appearance of the printed page. Use only for proper names, specific organizations, titles, ranks, historical events and geographical divisions.

Commas should be avoided before the final ‘and’ or ‘or’ in lists unless the concepts in the list are complicated and the comma aids clarity.

Dates should be written in the form 18 August 1990. Decades should be "the 1990s'" without an apostrophe. Dates should also be elided to the decade: 1823-29, not 1823-1829 or 1823-9.

Ellipsis should be used to indicate the omission of a piece of text. The correct form is […] with a character space on either side.

Full points are not needed after headings, sub-headings or figure and table captions.

Italics should be used for book/journal/newspaper titles. They can also be used to add emphasis in running text (rather than bold type) but, with the aim of producing a ‘reader-friendly’ text, please keep this to a minimum.

Quotation marks: double quotation marks should be used throughout, with single quotation marks for quotes appearing within quotes; revert to double quotation marks for a third level of quoted material. The closing quotation mark should precede any punctuation, unless the text quoted forms a complete sentence, for example:

He commented that it was "the best of times".
He commented: "It was the best of times."

Spacing: full stops, commas, colons and semi-colons should be followed by one character space only.

Spelling should be standardised English, rather than American forms. Where a dictionary gives alternative spellings for some words please use the –ize suffix where possible.

Tables and figures should are normally numbered 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 and so on. In the text refer to Table 2.1 and Figure 3.2.

Presentation of the manuscript:

Please send a hard copy plus an electronic version (on a CD or via email).

Do not use headers/footers or other complex coding.

Please use the same styles throughout your text. Make sure that your electronic and print versions match exactly.

Label your disk clearly and supply necessary details (e.g. a list of filenames).

The manuscript should be set out double-spaced with wide margins (c. 3cm wide)

Avoid stapling or adding bits of paper to the manuscript and avoid adding amendments by hand.

Number all pages consecutively throughout the manuscript in the bottom (center).

Please retain a copy of the manuscript for safekeeping.

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